The History of Solitaire

While people have been playing solitary games with cards, dice, stones and pegs since the dawn of recorded history, solitaire, used to describe games for which the goal is to arrange a deck of cards from a chaotic pattern to an ordered pattern, only saw description in card gaming literature beginning about 1765. This element of creating order from chaos likely stems from a combination of cartomancy forms like Tarot and Germanic culture, as the mid 18th century was when many of the modern cartomantic layouts were established. The first definitive recording of a game of Solitaire comes from a German gaming book from 1783.

Solitaire was originally known as Patience, and was a competitive game between two players. The goal was to complete the game before the other player. However, it soon took hold as a solitary pursuit, probably due to the fact that practicing it alone offered the same gaming experience as competing with another. The solitary nature of Patience also likely stemmed from its similarities with another solitary card pursuit, Tarot.

Similarities and Differences between Solitaire and Tarot

Indeed, there are many similarities between Tarot and Solitaire, known as Patience back when it was first created. Both are solitary pursuits, often done to engage the mind with a system of rules rather than with another person. Both can use the same set of cards, with both fifty-two and seventy-eight card Solitaire games recorded in its infancy. Both make use of pre-ordained arrangements. There is even a tradition, still alive in Germany and Scandinavia today, of using Solitaire as a means for divination. If one “wins” within the first few games, times will be good and luck will smile on you, whereas if one loses a string of games, the cards are saying to be cautious.

Yet they differ also, and this is where the German cultural values come in as opposed to the Roma or even Egyptian elements that found Tarot. Namely, Solitaire is concerned with building an ordered card structure at the end, rather than an ordered mental or “spiritual” structure in the way that Tarot is designed to do.

Historical Stories about Solitaire

Napoleon was said to be a card gaming fanatic, and everywhere he went, he learned the local forms of playing cards. The strategic mind that won him so many battles across Europe was well-suited for cards, and Solitaire was no exception. While the conqueror was generally surrounded by enough people that he didn’t play Patience or other forms of Solitaire while he was rampaging through Europe, upon his exile the stories went that all he did was play Patience endlessly. A brilliant strategist’s mind never sleeps, so the story went.

Around that time in the 19th century, different forms of Solitaire were gaining traction throughout France, but historical evidence shows that while Napoleon played cards in exile, he never played Patience. Regardless, so popular did Solitaire become in France, in part due to the stories told about their greatest general, that many of the terminology used in Solitaire today derives from French.

Solitaire caught on among English speakers beginning in the mid 19th century, when Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria and passionate social reformer, was said to play Solitaire often in his spare time. It is fascinating to trace the rise and fall of Solitaire’s popularity in terms of changes, orderings, and restructurings of a society at any given time. It took about half a century for Solitaire to make its way across the pond to the United States, where it caught on like wildfire during the gold rush of the early 20th century, and again during the Great Depression of the 1930s.

One final story about Solitaire is tragic. During the fall of the Nazi Regime, Adolf Hitler was said to have taken his most trusted lieutenants and staff, among them Joseph Goebbles and his wife and children, to a bunker to avoid being raped and defiled by the advancing Soviets. Magda Goebbles was said to be a solitaire enthusiast, and the story goes that after she fed cyanide to her children, she played Patience, a sort of sad tribute to the Nazi attempts to create a “perfectly ordered society.”

Common Solitaire Synonyms

Patience – Used throughout the UK today, Patience was the original name for solitary card games. The sense was that rather than using bluffs, personality traits, or luck to win the game, the primary quality exercised was that of patience.

Klondike – Solitaire is often a synecdoche for Klondike, meaning that it is so well-known that people use the term “Solitaire” to refer to Klondike exclusively. Klondike is a form of solitaire that involves alternating suits, cascades of cards, a four-suit set of foundations, and a deck. It is the simplest form of solitaire that still contains every element solitaire is best known for. The name “Klondike” comes from the fact that it was made popular during the Gold Rush of the early 1900s which took place in the Alaskan Klondike region.

The Unofficial History of Cribbage and Sir John Suckling

One of England’s greatest contributions to Western Civilization is the card game Cribbage, at least in the opinion of avid Cribbage players. Sir John Suckling is the one responsible for bringing us the game that we love today. Although there is no evidence to truly prove that Sir John Suckling was the creator of Cribbage, he is, at the very least, the one responsible for publishing and spreading the game all through the land.

Sir John Suckling, poet, playwright, master bowler/gambler and notorious womanizer, was born at Whitton, between Twickenham and Hounslow, Middlesex, on February 10, 1609. He was born into a very prominent family in England, although after his mother died when he was four years of age, his father was in charge of rearing the young child. His father was a member of the English Parliament and was the “controller” of the King’s household until his untimely death in 1627. Sir John was at the age of 18 when his father passed and was old enough to inherit his father’s considerably large estate. After receiving the inheritance he spent countless amount of money traveling, womanizing and of course gambling.

In 1623 he enrolled in Trinity College, Cambridge and then to Gray’s Inn in 1627. At the young age of 18, he pursued a military career and joined the army of Gustavus Adolphus during the Thirty Years’ War. At the age of 21, King Charles I knighted Suckling. The king quickly regretted the decision, so Suckling left the court and became involved in several different military adventures. He was said to have served in an expedition against France and it has been said that he fought in Lord Wimbledon’s regiments in the Dutch service. In October 1631, Sir John joined Sir Henry Vane who was serving under Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden. In 1632, Suckling quickly came back into King Charles’s good graces after delivering the dispatches, by orders of Vane, and after completing his mission he returned and remained in England.

After that he pretty much filled his time gambling, womanizing, and serving in the military for the rest of the decade. This is where he was said to have invented the beloved game of cribbage, which had some similar features to the games, Noddy and One-and-Thirty. Although when the Scottish war of 1639 began, he left his beloved cards and women to raise a troop of 100 horsemen and his army joined King Charles in the north. When the war ended, peacefully, in 1639, Sir John returned to London. He was elected to Parliament in 1640, but in May 1641 he was involved in a vain attempt to free a political prisoner, Thomas Wentworth, the earl of Stratford and held in the Tower of London. Sir John Suckling was then charged with treason and had to flee to France with very few belongings and almost no financial assistance, to avoid arrest.

In order to establish some kind of financial security in one of his darkest hours, Suckling started selling a large number of marked packs of cards and distributed them amongst the richest population in the region. He then started playing cards where the marked cards were distributed. In 1642, it was believed that Sir John Suckling committed suicide by taking poison. It has been said that his greatest accomplishments were the lyrics to “why so pale” and “wan fond lover?” and for Cribbage, which has changed very little since Suckling’s day and is one of the most popular card games in the English speaking world.

Online Gambling – Its Advantages and Disadvantages

Online gambling has become a popular game now. The history of online gambling is not very old. This game has both a good and a bad side. In certain cases playing online gambling is better than playing at live casinos and in some ways it is not. We can understand this better if we look at the various pros and cons of online gambling.

Let us first see the pros. The market of online casino and gambling is a highly competitive one. Some of the sites offer big bonuses that helps in attracting the players and they can make money. Besides, a number of sites offer various types of promotions and rewards for keeping their players.

As compared to live casinos, the online casino games have better odds and more forgiving rules as they do not posses the same overhead costs as is found in case of real casinos. The greatest advantage is that you can play it directly from your home if you have an internet access there. You do not need to travel for playing the game online.

Playing online casino games also keeps you away from the huge crowd that is found at live casino parlors. You can play at your own convenience at anytime of the day you feel like. There is no one to distract you while you are on with a game. Besides, you also do not require giving tip to the staff. Thus it helps in saving your pocket.

These were so far the positive sides of playing online gambling. Let us now take a look at its negative sides. The withdrawals associated with the game can take a longer time to come. This is not the case with live casinos. However, the money in online gambling gets transferred directly to the bank account.

Another major problem with online gambling and casino is that you do not get customer service instantly, which is true for live casinos. The online casino sites generally have telephonic support or live chat team for the players. However, the service is not that fast.

If you want to try out a variety of games at different online casino gaming sites, then you need to deposit money at each of them rather than carrying the cash around that is possible at live casinos. It depends upon you whether you find it comfortable to play at a live casino parlor or an online casino.

Why Gamblers Are Tempted to Risk More While Gambling

Introduction

Despite being on the losing spree, the people might gamble more with the hope that they will win the next game. Even the sweet memories of the past victories force the people to play more. A recent study has revealed this trend. The authors of this study have published the outcome of this study in the Journal of Experimental Psychology. In this article, we would be looking at the interesting findings brought out by this interesting study.

Recent Study

The study found that people chose to go in for further plays when the scientists reminded or primed them of past winning outcomes. It has found that people were over 15% more likely to play more by selecting the risky option. The research team from the University for Warwick in Britain believe that memories of the people play a crucial role in making certain decisions. When the team interviewed people who are in the habit of gambling, they found that subtle cues about the past victories play a significant role in propelling them forward to gamble more. This is clearer in people who go for gambling in local casinos. The gamblers even place millions of dollars in cash on the table for the final showdown in some poker tournaments with the hope that they would win in the next game.

Hypothesis

The researchers had come with the hypothesis that memory of winning outcomes in the past forced the people go for more gambling in casinos and risk lots of money on the table. The results of the study more or less confirm the roles these cues play in forcing the people to play more, risking their money. In order to cross check the hypothesis, the researchers manipulated the memory of the participants for past winning outcomes with simple risky choice tasks. The researchers achieved this by asking the participants to select one of the two doors as part of a computer test.

Testing Technique

The authors of the study gave the participants the choice of four coloured doors to select from. Three of the doors always led to guaranteed outcomes (0, 40 or 80). On the other hand, the fourth door led to a risky 50/50 outcome that carried 20 or 60 points. Later in the study, the team members reminded the participants about their past winning or losing outcome based on the points that they got, depending upon the door they opened. When the team members told the participants about the points they had got, they tended to go towards the risky door more often.