The History of Solitaire

While people have been playing solitary games with cards, dice, stones and pegs since the dawn of recorded history, solitaire, used to describe games for which the goal is to arrange a deck of cards from a chaotic pattern to an ordered pattern, only saw description in card gaming literature beginning about 1765. This element of creating order from chaos likely stems from a combination of cartomancy forms like Tarot and Germanic culture, as the mid 18th century was when many of the modern cartomantic layouts were established. The first definitive recording of a game of Solitaire comes from a German gaming book from 1783.

Solitaire was originally known as Patience, and was a competitive game between two players. The goal was to complete the game before the other player. However, it soon took hold as a solitary pursuit, probably due to the fact that practicing it alone offered the same gaming experience as competing with another. The solitary nature of Patience also likely stemmed from its similarities with another solitary card pursuit, Tarot.

Similarities and Differences between Solitaire and Tarot

Indeed, there are many similarities between Tarot and Solitaire, known as Patience back when it was first created. Both are solitary pursuits, often done to engage the mind with a system of rules rather than with another person. Both can use the same set of cards, with both fifty-two and seventy-eight card Solitaire games recorded in its infancy. Both make use of pre-ordained arrangements. There is even a tradition, still alive in Germany and Scandinavia today, of using Solitaire as a means for divination. If one “wins” within the first few games, times will be good and luck will smile on you, whereas if one loses a string of games, the cards are saying to be cautious.

Yet they differ also, and this is where the German cultural values come in as opposed to the Roma or even Egyptian elements that found Tarot. Namely, Solitaire is concerned with building an ordered card structure at the end, rather than an ordered mental or “spiritual” structure in the way that Tarot is designed to do.

Historical Stories about Solitaire

Napoleon was said to be a card gaming fanatic, and everywhere he went, he learned the local forms of playing cards. The strategic mind that won him so many battles across Europe was well-suited for cards, and Solitaire was no exception. While the conqueror was generally surrounded by enough people that he didn’t play Patience or other forms of Solitaire while he was rampaging through Europe, upon his exile the stories went that all he did was play Patience endlessly. A brilliant strategist’s mind never sleeps, so the story went.

Around that time in the 19th century, different forms of Solitaire were gaining traction throughout France, but historical evidence shows that while Napoleon played cards in exile, he never played Patience. Regardless, so popular did Solitaire become in France, in part due to the stories told about their greatest general, that many of the terminology used in Solitaire today derives from French.

Solitaire caught on among English speakers beginning in the mid 19th century, when Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria and passionate social reformer, was said to play Solitaire often in his spare time. It is fascinating to trace the rise and fall of Solitaire’s popularity in terms of changes, orderings, and restructurings of a society at any given time. It took about half a century for Solitaire to make its way across the pond to the United States, where it caught on like wildfire during the gold rush of the early 20th century, and again during the Great Depression of the 1930s.

One final story about Solitaire is tragic. During the fall of the Nazi Regime, Adolf Hitler was said to have taken his most trusted lieutenants and staff, among them Joseph Goebbles and his wife and children, to a bunker to avoid being raped and defiled by the advancing Soviets. Magda Goebbles was said to be a solitaire enthusiast, and the story goes that after she fed cyanide to her children, she played Patience, a sort of sad tribute to the Nazi attempts to create a “perfectly ordered society.”

Common Solitaire Synonyms

Patience – Used throughout the UK today, Patience was the original name for solitary card games. The sense was that rather than using bluffs, personality traits, or luck to win the game, the primary quality exercised was that of patience.

Klondike – Solitaire is often a synecdoche for Klondike, meaning that it is so well-known that people use the term “Solitaire” to refer to Klondike exclusively. Klondike is a form of solitaire that involves alternating suits, cascades of cards, a four-suit set of foundations, and a deck. It is the simplest form of solitaire that still contains every element solitaire is best known for. The name “Klondike” comes from the fact that it was made popular during the Gold Rush of the early 1900s which took place in the Alaskan Klondike region.

Betting Sports – How to Bet on Sports and Win 97 Percent of All Your Bets

The history of betting began as early as the history of sports itself. In its early days, sports betting didn’t get as much popularity as it does today. Before, only a few sports events involved betting such as horse races. But now, the common view about sports betting has changed. Betting sports has become more popular than ever before. You can bet on any event such as hockey, soccer, NBA, or NFL. People involved in sports betting want to feel the pleasure of winning and to earn some cash. Some people even make a living out of betting on sports.

These days, you don’t have to fly to Las Vegas just to place your bet. Instead, you can bet on sports with the help of some websites. Websites work in the same manner as a regular betting process. Every betting website uses a sports book where all the bets are placed. The sports book, which contains all the details of the game and players, provides information about the available bet types on a player, the winning team, and the highest-scoring team. You can even make a forecast on the future of any season through some bets.

It is advised that you get sufficient knowledge about sports before you get yourself involved in this activity of betting. You do your homework by keeping yourself updated on the latest team setups and trends. Newspapers and magazines can provide you with the latest picks and other betting essentials. You can also secure your way to victory with the help of handicappers and betting systems. You can use these tools to your full advantage if you know all the details.

Casino Gambling and The Tao

It may seem strange to equate casino gambling with Taoist philosophy, but it may be because gambling is so much a part of and widely accepted in Chinese culture.

The very first recorded history of playing cards date back to 9th century China which makes sense being that they were the inventors of writing paper. The first book written with reference to playing cards dates to the Tang Dynasty (618-907) called Yezi Gexi. By the 11th century playing cards could be found throughout Asia featuring many of the 108 heroes of Lan Shun found in the Chinese classic the “Water Margin.”

In the 16th century playing cards had made their way to France and it is there that they began using the suits of picture cards that we are familiar with today based on figures of French nobility.

Taoist philosophy is said to be nearly 6,000 years old and came to prominence with the teachings of The Yellow Emperor, Huang Ti, the first emperor of China. With many of their scientific discoveries such as mathematics and astronomy, there was also a deep connection to astrology, symbology (a science of symbols and their effects), numerology and many forms of mysticism.

In the 7th Pillar of Taoism, “The Tao of Mastery,” The symbol for water is K’AN and states, “to be successful and fortunate, risk must be taken.” Luck to the ancient Taoists was a form of control and timing.

Clearly in all gambling, timing is an important factor. Regardless of the type of gambling, all of it’s forms tend to run in cycles, both winning and losing ones. It is the skill which one navigates through these cycles that the player conveys their level of control over the outcome.

The first serious studies of gambling in the 20th century were done by economists who expressed their confusion that gambling is a losing proposition and in effect, irrational behavior. In 1945 William Vickery, a noted economist, concluded that gambling should be measured not in expected gains but by the money a gambler doesn’t have that appears to be more valuable to them than what he does have.

The typical view is that gambling is self-destructive, undermines the work ethic and removes money that could be put to better uses in the economy. The notion that most people tend to gamble beyond their means remains unproven and was disputed in research conducted in 1966 in the “Economics of Gambling” published in London, England. In this study it was found to be an affective outlet for frustration, a relief from loneliness and a leveler of inequality among the economic classes.

Many psychologists view gambling as a normal form of recreation and destructive only to the addicted. They stated that the solution lies in treating the gambler, not in the condemnation of gambling as a whole.

The casino patron is courted with opulent surroundings, swimming pools, shops, shows, night life and “comped” amenities. The attraction is undeniable as an escape from tedious and purposeless occupations. Being confronted with the myth of success, when faced with insurmountable economic and social obstacles, makes the whole casino experience much easier to understand.

My own opinion is that people who gamble solely for the thrills and excitement, with no care of the economic results, would do better to find a more fulfilling and less expensive hobby. Gambling is an isolated activity. It will not take the place of a meaningful relationship nor will it counteract feelings of alienation or loneliness. These are not reasons to gamble.

Using any type of gambling to fill a void in ones personal life, something which it cannot do, is the type of gambling that can lead to devastating consequences.

If you’ve ever been in a casino, there is one thing you’ve probably noticed more than anything else… that one thing is seeing people lose money. This happens because the amateur gambler enters into this competition without a basic knowledge of the odds of the games, a playing strategy or even a thought to proper money management. It’s a careless way to handle ones money and does little to change the inevitable outcome.

Casinos love this type of gambler and spend a fortune attracting their business. With the odds squarely in their favor, the casino operators know that even though there are highly effective methods of playing that can shift those odds to the player, very few of them will invest the time or effort to use them.

Common sense tells us that if everyone that gambles in casinos lost, they would cease to exist. In order to attract losers you must have winners and it is just as easy to win at many casino games as it is to lose.

I do not write for the weekend gamblers who are looking desperately to have a good time at any cost. Winning is not even in their vocabulary. They consider the possibility of winning to be remote as if being left completely to chance.

It is the individual who is determined to win at any cost that I feel are most like myself. It is to these individuals that I offer the following. There does exist many ways to achieve your goal. Resolve that you will learn everything you have to in order to win consistently when risking your hard earned money gambling in casinos. To me, nothing else makes sense.

In the words of the ancient Taoist, Lao Tse

“Fortune favors the prepared.”

Las Vegas Interesting Facts

Many have had their days of glory in the state of Nevada. But these three step out of the crowd, as they gave the name of the game.

Frank Rosenthal

He is the best sports handicapper in the history of Las Vegas. He used to be called “Las Vegas King”, “Guru”, or something that he surely is: a genius. He inaugurated the first sports and race book, at Stardust Hotel & Casino. Every casino in Las Vegas copied his invention afterwards. He used to run four casinos at the same time, during the 1970’s and early 1980’s: Stardust, Fremont, Hacienda, and Marina.

Frank “Lefty” Rosenthal inspired one of the leading characters in the “Casino” book and movie (performed by Robert de Niro), though the story doesn’t speak the entire truth, he says. You can find Frank at his own web page

Steve Wynn

Partially, he has made his apprenticeship with Frank Rosenthal. Finally, he “dethroned” him. He is now chairman of Mirage Resorts, that includes the largest hotel in the world, MGM Grand. Some of his success is linked to the name of E. Parry Thomas, known as the only banker in town, at that time, who would loan money to build a casino. Rosenthal himself describes him as a “a very skilled mind”.

George Wingfield

The two “kings” were preceded by George Wingfield, a major figure in the history of Nevada, since 1912. He used to be characterised as “the owner and operator of Nevada”. Two businesses got him the glory: mining and gambling. He moved to Nevada at the beginning of the 20th century. As an active politician he struggled to get gambling and divorce legalised. Gambling was re-legalised in the state of Nevada in 1931. The same year, the famous six-weeks divorce law was approved. Ironically, nowadays, 230 marriage licenses are issued every day in Las Vegas.

The gold mine of America

After South Africa, the state of Nevada is the largest gold producer in the world. Golden Nugget Hotel displays the world’s biggest gold nugget ever found, that weights 61 pounds.

The most famous mine owner in the history of Nevada was George Wingfield. He also owned every bank in the state. Goldfield Consolidated Mines Company, that he ran together with senator (at that time) George S. Nixon, made them both multi-millionaires.

The other “gold mine” of the state of Nevada is gambling, since gaming activities were legalised in 1931. In 2003, the gross gaming revenue in Las Vegas was $7,673,489,000.

This “gold mine” closed its doors only one time in history: on November 25th 1963, for the national mourning of the assassinated president George Kennedy. History didn’t repeat itself in the first days after September 11. In fact, Americans asked in surveys on this subject saw Las Vegas as a place to escape the tension.