Venetian Mask History, the Moretta Mask

The Moretta mask is one of the most traditional designs of Venetian masks. Originating in France it was quickly taken up by the fashion conscious Venetian women who loved the way the mask accentuated the soft feminine lines of the female face. Its popularity was short lived as by 1760 it had disappeared.

The Moretta mask was oval in shape with no mouth opening, just eye holes.Traditionally the mask was worn with a veil so giving total anonymity to its wearer. Originally made of black velvet the features are expressionless. It was designed without ties to secure it in place relying Instead on a button a button sewn on the inside of the mask which was clamped in the mouth of the wearer, so keeping the mask in place and rendering the wearer mute. This is why the Moretta mask is also called the Servetta Muta meaning mute maid servant.

The lack of verbal communication this mask imposed meant that Venetian women had to use their body language to communicate. It encouraged coquettish behavior, the tilt of the head,the fluttering of eye lashes, the touch of a hand all became an intricate part of flirtation.Its expressionless face meant that the female wearer had to use her body to communicate, much as a mime artist would today. When worn, the Moretta mask accentuated all the attributes that Venetians considered to be the height of desirability and femininity. 

The moretta mask was worn to gambling houses, for affairs and when visiting convents where vows of silence were observed.

Thankfully todays Moretta masks are designed with ribbon ties to secure it. The button has been left in an era where women’s views were seen as unimportant and where they were judged on their physical attributes alone. They can be crafted from leather, cloth or paper mache. Most are still blank in either black or white as tradition dictates. If you wish for one that is a little more decorative there are designs that have been embelished with gilded macrame and crystals. Although not historically correct these do look superb when worn and also make lovely wall decoration. The leather Moretta masks are probably the most comfortable, allowing the skin to breath and molding to the shape of the wearers face.

Although simple in its design and somewhat inconvenient to wear, this mask still holds a fascination for us today. Its expressionless façade imbibes its wearer with an ethereal look which captivates our attention wherever it may be worn.

Online Casino Games – History of the Online Casino Games

From the past few decades, it has been observed that the online games are growing rapidly. Most of the people are interested to play these games to relax their minds and some of them are playing for hue money. However, there is small history behind these casino games. In earlier days, if you want to play these games, you need to travel to world’s finest cities or your local casino halls. With the advent of internet technology, so many people are playing the games from their comfortable home only. Micro gaming and internet are combined and formed a new version of games called online gambling.

In earlier days of internet, most of the manufacturers of these games are introduced so much software for free of cost. After that they have added some E-commerce technologies and pioneer of technology has created some financial transactions in this software, and they launched first real money online private club called Internet Casino. After few years, these online casinos are growing rapidly, and they are improved in both formats like gaming and administrative features. And coming to the Progressive jackpot, there are so many wide ranges of features are available for you, and you are able to play with different players from different countries. And the development in internet has been creating so many options like faster and larger jack pots to the people. And also there are so many utilities are available for you, and sometimes you need to check on their gaming history and financial history.

According to this century, most of the people are interested in these online gambling games, and it is reporting a phenomenal growth and coming to the software it has upgraded their products significantly. With the help of Vegas technology, there are so many online casinos are available for you in the internet. Most of these games are compatible to all operating systems and there does not need to download these games from the web sites. Multi lingual and multi currency are the best options for these online casino games. However, there are some well established organizations are providing their valuable services and research to their clients. From the past few years, the advents in these online casino games are continuing without end. However, the government has been declaring some essential rule sand regulations to the online casinos to launder money. You need to consider so many things before selecting the best one for your needs and sometimes, you need to know about the online games and secured online truncations and many more issues.

Finally, there are some well established and experienced web sites are offering these online casino games for their customers. For more information and details, please visit their valuable web site.

The History of Texas Holdem Poker

Texas Holdem is a variation of 7 card stud that became popular in the United States in the 1990s but had been played a decade earlier. Poker has always been popular in the United States and Texas Holdem is a poker game. It is believed that the concept of poker started in the Middle Ages although the concept of the game of chance with numbers can date back to the ancient Chinese. The game was introduced in the United States in the French quarter of New Orleans as “poque” hence the name “poker.”

When playing Texas Holdem poker, you get two cards dealt face down. These are called your pocket cards. Five other cards are dealt face down in the center of the table. The betting commences as each of the first three cards on the table are flipped over. These are called the flop cards.

Poker is always a hand of five cards, although you can be dealt five or seven cards in the game. Even though you have seven cards, you can only use five to make up your poker hand. In the game of Texas Holdem, you have to use your two pocket cards plus any of the five cards on the table, which everyone else can use as well. Each player has the same hand with the exception of their pocket cards.

There are two different types of poker. Stud poker is when the cards that are dealt is all that is dealt from the deck. Draw poker is when you can take additional cards from the dealer when you relinquish other cards from your hand. With draw poker, you stand a better chance of getting a higher hand than with stud poker. Texas Holdem is a stud poker game.

The fourth card turned up is the turn and the fifth is the river. A conservative poker player will go out after the flop if he or she does not have a good hand. A good hand in Texas Holdem or any other poker game is a pair of Jacks or better. However, many players will stay in the game even if they do not have a good hand if they feel that they can bluff their way through. If you are playing in a tournament for real money, you might be tempted to go out if you are unsure of your hand. A good winning hand in Texas Holdem poker is three of a kind or better.

Poker has been played throughout the ages in one form or another. Texas Holdem is just a variation of this timeless game can easily be dated back to the 13th century. There are thousands of variations of poker that are played throughout the world. Once you understand the concept of the poker game, it is very easy to pick up each different game.

The Game of Draw Poker – A Brief History

In many ways, the game epitomizes the raw bone tenacity of the American spirit that drove the western movement from the Mississippi River in the 1800’s. Life on the frontier was harsh, hazardous and full of risks – the pioneers were literally gambling on their lives each day. To both survive in the untamed west and to win at draw poker a man had to be skillful at what he did and count on lady luck to smile on him. He had to closely watch his adversaries and at times bluff his way out of a situation. The results of his actions could prove very profitable or he could lose it all, sometimes even his life. Draw poker then was a natural choice for the men of the American west who were used to risking it all.

The game was the result of an evolutionary process that started when poker was first took shape in America early in the nineteenth-century. Just when and where it was first played is subject to a continuing debate among historians, as is the game’s origins. Several postulations attribute the game’s lineage to a French game called “poque” or possibly to a German game known as “pochspiel.” British historians state that the game was a direct descendent of the English card game of “brag.” Still other researchers claim that poker evolved from a sixteen-century Persian card game called “as nas” that was played with a twenty-five-card deck containing five suites and has rules similar to five-card stud poker. Since exact documentation of poker’s early history is impossible to determine its inception will probably remain a mystery.

Poker is thought to have started in America sometime in the early 1800’s, possibly in saloons of New Orleans. From there it spread up the Mississippi and Ohio rivers by way of the commercial steam boat traffic. Then as the wagon trains and railroads pushed the frontier west, poker continued to gain popularity with the early adventurers. An English actor, Joseph Crowell, recorded seeing poker being played on the riverboats in his diary of 1829 and later in his 1844 book, Thirty Years Passed Among the Players in England and America. A reformed gambler by the name of Jonathan H. Green wrote about early poker in his book, Exposure of the Arts and Miseries of Gambling that was published in 1843. Both men described an early version of poker that was played with a twenty-card deck (A-K-Q-J-10). Each of four players was dealt five cards and bets were placed on these five original cards without discards or draws. When the betting was over the owner of the best hand won the pot – in the order of one pair, two pair, triplets, full house (one pair and a triple), and four of a kind. Due to the limits of a twenty-card deck there was only a single round of betting before the winning hand was declared and this made bluffing a much more difficult maneuver.

As the game evolved it moved to a thirty-two card deck and then eventually to the standard “French deck” of fifty-two cards. Sometime in the mid-1830’s straights and flushes were introduced as winning hands. A few years later draw poker was born and started making the rounds of gambling halls in the west. The first mention of draw poker appeared in the American edition of Bohn’s New Handbook of Games in 1850. In that same year, wild cards were introduced to poker play.

With these enhancements draw poker and another version called stud poker became the card games of choice among the soldiers on both sides of the Civil War. Originally called, “stud horse” poker, the game was played around the campfires between battles and was a close rival to draw poker in popularity. Both versions are conducive to bluffing but in stud poker, you are not allowed to draw or discard cards. Rather, some of the cards are dealt face down and some face up to the player so that everyone at the table knows a few of the cards being held by each player. Betting occurs after each new face up card is dealt and after the last face down card is dealt. The first mention of stud poker appeared in the American Hoyle of 1864.

In draw poker all the cards are dealt face down to the players and after all of the cards have been dealt there is a round of betting. Then players may discard any number of cards and receive the same amount of cards from the dealer. When all the players have completed their hands there is another round of betting before the winner is declared. Later, in 1870, jackpot poker was introduced in an attempt to prevent players with poor hands from being drawn into a pot that was impossible to win. In this version, players were required to have jacks or better to open betting. If a player did not possess the minimum to play, they were required to fold and lose their ante.

The first recorded set of rules for playing draw poker came about when Robert C. Scheneck, a United States ambassador to Great Britain, introduced the game to the members of Queen Victoria’s court at a party in 1872. Fascinated with the new game the royalty asked Scheneck to jot down the rules of the game so they could play the game after he returned to America. He obliged and his handwritten rules of play were then printed by the queen’s staff for future parties. Later, without his permission or that of the queen’s court, his set of rules were published as a small booklet and sold to the masses. Entitled, A Flowery Path to Wealth: The Game of Draw Poker as Taught to the English Aristocracy, the pamphlet was a major hit with the British people who quite often referred to the game as “Scheneck’s poker”. Scheneck, who had served as general under President Lincoln, was embarrassed by the public release of his rules that he had been assured would be used privately by queen’s court.

John W. Keller, an American, included Scheneck’s rules for draw poker in his own book, The Game of Draw Poker, published in 1887. In addition, he used a portion of a letter written by Scheneck to a political friend, Thomas L. Young; to describe how the ambassador had unwittingly became party to the publication of the first set of rules for the game.

Keller’s book provided a more detailed account of the rules and variations to the game as well as a section on progressive poker, which he described as being “The latest development of draw poker… and doubtless owes its origin to the popularity of progressive euchre.” Contrary to Keller’s comments, progressive poker never caught the attention of American gamblers and its play quickly faded from the gaming scene.

Throughout the book, Keller refers to a noted mathematician, “Dr. Pole” who provided the probability and odds for draw poker hands. At the end of the book, he summarizes Pole’s calculations in a series of probability tables, which have stood the test of time. According to Dr. Poe’s figures, there is an astounding 2,598,960 possible hands in draw poker.

Since Keller’s book was published in 1887, there have been a large number of books printed on the subject of draw poker but few have been as clear and concise on the rules and the strategy of the game. His sage advice to “Study your adversaries carefully; watch the game closely; be patient in adversity and calm in prosperity,” seems right in keeping with the old gambler’s adage of knowing “when to hold ’em and when to fold ’em.”

Poker Timeline:

1839 – English comedic actor Joseph Crowell wrote about a poker game being played on the steamboat Helen M,Gregor, bound for New Orleans. He described a game called poker being played by four players using 20 cards (A, K,Q, J, 10) with a single round of betting – highest hand won. In his book, Thirty Years Passed Among the Players in England and America (1844), Crowell said that the game had been invented by the American politician, Henry Clay. The game was based on the British game, brag.

1834 – Jonathan H. Green, a professional gambler turned reformer, wrote about the “cheating game” called poker being played on the Mississippi riverboats in his book entitled, Exposure of the Arts and Miseries of Gambling.

1836 – J. Hildreth wrote about poker in his book, Dragoon Campaigns of the Rocky Mountains.

1837 – Poker used a 52-card deck. Straights and flushes were added.

1845 – Poker was first mentioned in an American edition of Hoyle’s Games. (The gold standard for the rules of card games) by Henry F. Anners.

1850 – First mention of draw poker in the American edition of Bohn’s New Handbook of Games.

1850 – Wild cards introduced to poker.

1861- 1866 – During the Civil War, soldiers and others made stud and draw poker the most popular form of the game.

1864 – First mention of stud or “stud-horse” poker in the American Hoyle of 1864.

1872 – Robert C. Scheneck, U.S. minister to Great Britain, introduced the game of draw poker to the members of the court of Queen Victoria at a royal party. He was asked to write down the rules of the game and eventually this was turned into a small booklet. The booklet was published without his permission and called, A Flowery Path to Wealth: The Game of Draw poker as Taught to the English Aristocracy. Scheneck had been an army general under President Lincoln.

1870 – Jackpot poker (jacks or better to open) introduced to prevent players with a poor hand from being drawn into an impossible to win pot.

1875 – The joker (a European invention) was introduced to the game as a wild card.