A History of a Conference Call

Businesses have a need to allow people to collaborate on various projects, sharing ideas and opinions; this allows a business to stay connected. Conference calls have been the cornerstone of this ideal for decades now, but where did the concept begin?

Asen Yordanoff’s Jordanphone was introduced in 1945. This device would amplify the voice coming from the mouthpiece of a traditional phone and wirelessly transmit it to a loudspeaker for multiple parties to hear. While in today’s telephony terms this can be thought of more as an external page, it was a pioneering concept of its day.

In the early 1960s Bell Labs developed the Picturephone, and while it didn’t completely envelope the concept of the modern conference call, it did allow people to record and share images of themselves that would be sent every two seconds over three phone lines thousands of miles away to another person in California. With three phone lines dedicated to one entire phone call and the high equipment cost, Bell Labs was gambling on their hope that corporations would see this as a true need.

Bell Labs’ concept was prophetic; they envisioned this device as a need for businesses to conduct virtual meetings over a wide geographical distance. For the residential market, they hoped this service of seeing loved ones “live” could be profitable. When put into practical use, Picturephones were too expensive and implementation was too complicated. In the end, the project was abandoned.

Electronic switching of analog signal brought forth a plethora of new services in the telephony industry. In 1971, Illinois Bell would present a multitude of services that phone users became very familiar with: call waiting, speed dialing, call forwarding, and three-way calling. Three-way calling would allow a party on an active call to use “hook flash” (pressing the button upon which the phone rests) to allow the telephone company to present a secondary dial tone to the phone. The user would then dial the third number, and once that call was connected, use the hook flash to bring together all three audio streams.

With the advent of digital telephony and enterprise PBX in today’s corporate environment, many strides have been made in continuing to improve conference calling. A conference bridge is a service that hosts a number of conferences, allowing users to log in to them. Conference bridges were traditionally built upon analog PBX circuits, but within an individual organization a digital conference bridge can allow users can log into virtual meetings via analog or IP phone, web clients, even apps on their smart phones. The conference bridge is typically hosted on a server, and in many enterprise organizations, is managed locally by an administrator for a voice network.

In today’s market, features vary widely between brands of conference or teleconferencing bridges. The feature to allow video conferences alone is valuable, and careful research must be completed to determine which conference technologies are right for the organization.

History of Online Games

Much can be talked about online games history and much can be known as well as learned during this process. Hence one should know the origins of the various types of online games which are responsible for the present degree of enjoyment.

The magic started around the year 1969 when a two player game was developed with the basic aim for education. The path has seen an upward trend and hence many changes and new introductions took place since that time. All of these changes were quite fantastic in terms of the features that they provided as these features were completely new for that time period and hence were vested with a mammoth degree of attraction.

Hence the first multi-player game was born as a result of a toils of the scientists and the software developers. Many things about gaming were learned during this period and all of them were incorporated into the games that were built.

Online games really blossomed after the year 1995 when the restrictions imparted by the NSFNET(National Science Foundation Network) were removed. This resulted in the access to the complete domain of the internet and hence multi-player games became online ‘literally’ to the maximum possible degree of realism. The monetary success of the parent companies who first launched these games were ample source of encouragement for other companies to venture in this field. Hence competition continues to grow from that moment to even as this article is being written. The features hence became more advanced in an effort to implement immaculate product differentiation and the resulting games became more and more advanced. Today most of the online games that are present are also free and hence they are able to provide ample resources of enjoyment without the need to spend a single penny.

Online games history bears a illuminating aspect to it and hence it should be known by all those who love to play online games. Free games were have been a part of online games for quite some time now and hence an idea about free games history is also quite interesting. The first games that were declared free were basically board games like chess and backgammon and today the list has increased to free games being present in almost all the feasible genres of games.

The study of the history of both online as well as their free versions gives an idea as to how these marvels were conceptualized and how were their ancestors(the first original games that were built like the first flight simulation game which was developed around 1979). Online games history is full of magical solutions to all the questions which must have been raised in the mind of perhaps every gamer.

The History Of Pinball Machines

Pinball machines have a complex history. The roots of the modern-day pinball machines that you use in your local café come from games such as croquet and billiards, which constitute of guiding a ball to a precise location by hitting them with an instrument. However, the real spiritual ancestor to modern pinball machines was the game of Bagatelle. Developed in France during the 18th century, the game consisted of getting balls into the holes on one side of the board using a stick or a cue. The surface of the board was inclined, and obstacles were set in front of the holes to provide a more challenging experience. Many of these features have been adapted and can be seen in modern pinball machines.

In the 19th century an inventor named Redgrave took the design of the Bagatelle game and improved on it. One of his additions, still visible today, is the plunger: a device which launched the ball up an inclined field. However, once the ball was released from the plunger the user could not interact with the ball further, as flippers for the pinball machine had not yet been developed. This lead to individuals gambling on the outcome the ball would face. As a result, pinball machines were banned in many parts of the United States, including in New York City from 1940 up to 1976. The ban on the machines was ended in a famous case where Roger Sharpe claimed that the balls could be controlled by skill (with the addition of flippers) and were not solely based on luck. On a pinball machine present in the courtroom, he announced where he was going to hit the ball and proceeded to do so successfully.

The 1930s saw much innovation in terms of the design of pinball machines. The machines now included limited electronic functions such as basic sounds and the ability to propel the ball without the user’s force. Several new features were introduced at this time as well, such as the tilt mechanism and free games. These new features were groundbreaking for those days and sparked a renewed interest in pinball machines. The “Humpty-Dumpty” pinball machine was the first pinball machine to include flippers. This meant that users could now play a ball for a greater period of time and introduced the whole aspect of skill and controlling the ball while playing pinball.

However, with video games being developed in the 1980s, they were quickly set aside in arcades to make way for the innovation provided by the video game sector. Many companies which had made their fortunes on manufacturing pinball machines were forced to close. It was only in the 1990s that pinball machines made a comeback, bringing exciting innovations to the machines such as a complex displays and sound systems.

Yet the turn of the millennium was a turn for the worse for pinball machines, and the sales reported by many manufactures were falling dramatically. Most manufactures were once again forced to close. Today, Stem Pinball is the only remaining manufacturer in the industry. We will have to wait and see whether they are able to bring innovation to an industry which has had so many ups and downs.

History of Bowling

The history of bowling can be traced back to the Stone Age. The first evidence of the game was discovered by the British Anthropologist Sir Flinders Petrie and his team of archaeologists in Egypt in the 1930s. He unearthed a collection of objects from a small child?s grave that appeared to have been the primitive form of the game. However, some argue that the game evolved much later than that. William Pehle, a German historian, claimed that the game of bowling originated in Germany around 300 AD. In Germany, the game had its origin as a religious ceremony for determining absence of sin. This game, introduced by the German monks to the masses, flourished as a customary test of faith.

In England, bowling was started as early as the 1100s. Throughout England, several variations of bowling, such as half-bowls, skittles and ninepins, existed during the mid 1300s. But, the first written mention of the game was made by the King Edward III in the year 1366. In this reference, he allegedly imposed a ban on playing this game among his troops because it was distracting the troops from archery practice. Later, during the regime of King Henry VIII, the game gained popularity and was played as a symbol of nobility and social status.

Bowling has been popular in America since Colonial days. During 17th century, English, Dutch and German settlers imported their own version of bowling to America. At that time, the game consisted of nine pins which were regularly played in an area of New York City still known as “Bowling Green”. Connecticut banned ninepins in 1841 because of their gambling implications.

The American Bowling Congress was formed on 9 September 1895 and is credited with standardizing bowling in the United States and organizing official competition. The Women’s Bowling League followed in 1917, under the encouragement of proprietor Dennis Sweeny.

Through the years, the game has changed. A variety of tactics have been developed. The invention of automatic pinspotter in the 1940s revolutionized both the bowling game and industry. Currently, the sport of bowling is enjoyed by 95 million people in more than ninety countries worldwide.